P23 In-situ and Nano X-ray Diffraction

The scientific case of the beamline concentrates on physics and chemistry of systems, dominated by low dimensional and confinement effects, with an emphasis on in-situ  and operando methods.

The beamline offers a variety of x-ray diffraction methods, such as

  •  reciprocal space mapping
  • surface diffraction
  • x-ray reflectivity
  • anomalous x-ray scattering
  •  x-ray standing waves.

Accompanying absorption and secondary emission methods include

  • x-ray fluorescence
  • X-ray excited optical luminescence

More scattering and spectroscopy methods, e.g. powder diffraction, small-angle x-ray scattering, GISAXS are also available with certain technical limitations. Coherent scattering methods can be employed, but the source is not optimized for coherent diffraction experiments.

P23 X-ray source is a spectroscopy type undulator providing  up to 1013 photons in the core energy range 5 keV to 35 keV. Higher energies up to 50 keV are also available, but provide limited focusing capabilities. The x-ray optics consists of a double crystal monochromator, mirrors for harmonics rejection and beam collimation, and two groups of focusing lenses. The monochromator  is equipped with Si(111) and Si(311) crystal pairs  cooled with liquid nitrogen. The mirrors offer B4C, Pt and Rh surface  coatings, which ensures operation in the whole energy range of the source. Beryllium focusing lenses in the optics hutch are designed for moderate 2:1 focusing, beam collimation and aperture matching operation in pair with the  second lens changer in the experimental hutch. The latter can be positioned at variable distances 0.4 m - 2 m from the sample, thus providing a wide range of achievable beam spot sizes with demagnification factors down to 200:1.

A heavy load 5+2 circle Huber diffractometer in the experimental hutch can carry which can carry sample cells with up to 150 kg in horizontal scattering mode and up to 15 kg on an Eulerian cradle in the vertical mode. The instrumentation pool is aimed for multiscale analysis of nanostructured materials and devices. The available detectors include a state of the art 2D LAMBDA pixel detector with GaAs sensor and a time resolution up to 2 kHz

Beamline Energy Resolution
1.3 * 10-4 [eV] @ 10000 [eV]
Beamline Energy Range
5 - 35 [keV]
Spot Size On Sample Hor
2 - 1500 [um]
Spot Size On Sample Vert
0.2 - 1000 [um]
Dmitri Novikov
  • Crystallography
  • Powder diffraction
  • Surface diffraction
  • Time-resolved studies
Emission or Reflection
  • Micro XRF
  • X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL)
  • X-ray fluorescence (XRF)
  • Anomalous scattering
  • Coherent scattering
  • Elastic scattering
  • Reflectivity
  • Resonant scattering
  • Small angle scattering
  • Time-resolved scattering
  • Wide angle scattering
  • Catalysis
  • Electrochemistry
Engineering & Technology
  • Nanotechnology & production processes
Material Sciences
  • Knowledge based multifunctional materials
  • Technique Development - Material Sciences
  • Hard condensed matter - structures
  • Nanophysics & physics of confined matter
  • Soft condensed matter physics
  • Surfaces, interfaces and thin films
  • Technique Development - Physics
control/Data analysis
Control Software Type
  • Spock, python
Data Output Type
  • scan files, images
Data Output Format
  • ascii ,HDF5, tiff
Softwares For Data Analysis
  • Sardana, PyMCA
Equipment That Can Be Brought By The User
Sample cells on the Eulerian cradle in 5+2 diffractometer setup: up to 15 kg, max. size from the sample stage to the beam up to 135 mm
Sample cells on the hexapod in 4-circle diffractometer setup: up to 150 kg, max. size from the sample stage to the beam up to 240 mm
Used supplied sample cells on the optical table, weight up tp 70 kg