Diamond Light Source
Beamline I16 - Materials and Magnetism

Advanced materials continue to be at the forefront of science and technology. Understanding the properties - electronic, mechanical, magnetic - of these materials remains one of the most challenging and active areas of science research.

The Materials and Magnetism beamline provides a unique, world-class single crystal X-ray diffraction facility for studying a diverse range of materials. This versatile diffraction facility is fully optimised to combine high flux and high resolution over a wide and continuously tuneable energy range, for diffraction and scattering experiments.

The high flux on this beamline is essential for two key categories of study:

  • measurements of very weak, but increasingly important, scattering processes, such as diffraction from magnetic, charge and orbital ordering;
  • measurements on very small samples volumes, including artificial nanostructures, thin films and surfaces.

The intense, low-divergence undulator beam can be focused to a spot less than 50 by 200 microns, with an energy range that is continuously tuneable from 3.3 keV (below the uranium M-edges) to around 15- 25 keV depending on the optical configuration. Energies in the range 2.7-3.0 keV are now available but require a non-standard set-up to reduce air absorption and should be discussed with beamline staff.

A diamond crystal phase retarder is available to convert the linearly polarised X-ray beam to circular polarisation.

The large 6-circle kappa diffractometer supports several sample stages, giving temperatures down to ~4-6 K, and a wide variety of detectors including a Pilatus 100K photon-counting pixel detector.

Linear polarisation analysis can be achieved with a novel in-vacuum analyser stage.

A new double-bounce silicon harmonic rejection mirror system has recently been installed and provides exceptionally high harmonic rejection over a wide energy range.

Standard Beamline Sample Stages:

  • 4K-300K ARS GM cooler (base temperature is typically ~6K but may be lower when pointing down).
  • 6K-800K ARS GM cooler (base temperature typically 8K; usually assume a maximum temperature of ~600K)

The following may be available by arrangement:

  • Oxford Diffraction Cryostream cooler (~100K-300K)
  • CryoIndustries Helium gas jet cooler (~15K-300K) (Note that this unit is more susceptible to icing than the Oxford unit).
  • 1.0-1.5 T electromagnet
  • KB microfocus mirrors (focus down to a few microns)
  • Pilatus 2M detector
Beamline Energy Range
3.5 - 25 [eV]
Steve Collins
  • XMCD
  • Crystallography
Emission or Reflection
  • Polarimetry
  • Reflectrometry
  • Coherent scattering
  • Elastic scattering
  • Small angle scattering
  • Wide angle scattering
control/Data analysis
Control Software Type
  • GDA
Data Output Type
  • Image
Data Output Format
  • dat/tiff/nxs