SOLARIS is a Polish national research centre providing scientists with synchrotron radiation. The National Synchrotron Radiation Centre functions under the auspices of the Jagiellonian University. The Centre was built between 2011 and 2014. The excellent parameters of the SOLARIS synchrotron put it in the forefront of this type of devices in the world.
The SOLARIS synchrotron is the largest scientific research device in Poland. It is also the first and only synchrotron light source in Central Europe. Kraków synchrotron was built using the most modern technologies and following an innovative project designed by specialists from the Swedish MAXIV Laboratory. SOLARIS synchrotron light source has a 550 MeV linear accelerator (Linac) and full energy (1.5 GeV) storage ring.
The SOLARIS synchrotron will begin operation with two beamlines (PEEM/XAS with two end-stations, and UARPES with one end-station). Ultimately, however, the experimental hall of the Kraków accelerator will house dozens of them. In total, the beamlines will be fitted with about twenty end-stations.
PEEM/XAS is a bending magnet based beamline dedicated to microscopy and spectroscopy in the soft X-rays energy range. The beamline is designed to study chemical and electronic, structural and magnetic properties by means of XAS, XNLD (X-ray natural linear dichroism) and XMCD (X-ray magnetic circular dichroism), XMLD (X-ray magnetic linear dichroism), respectively. It is suitable for probing element specific properties of surfaces, interfaces, thin films and nanomaterials.
The offered experimental stations are:
UARPES is an ultra angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy beamline which allows for measurements of fundamental quantities, i.e. the energy and the momentum, describing a photoelectron state in the space outside the solid sample. The beamiline delivers photons from the ultraviolet spectrum. It allows scientists to give a full description of the electron structure of the material. It is used in studies of new electronic materilas nanostructures, in the physics of superconductors and semiconductors.
PHELIX was designed as a beamline using soft X-rays, the source of which will be APPLE II undulator with permanent magnets.The PHELIX end-station will enable a wide range of spectroscopic and absorption studies characterized by different surface sensitivity. Besides collecting standard high-resolution spectra, it will allow, e.g. to map the band structure in three dimensions and to detect the spin in three dimensions. The opening of the beamline is planned on the beginning of 2020.
XMCD soft X-ray beamline was a part of MaxLab. It was demounted and transported to Kraków, Poland, in February 2016 by SOLARIS team members, supported by representatives of several other Polish research centres.The source of the beamline was an elliptically polarizing undulator, providing linearly and circularly polarized radiation. This maked magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) in absorption possible, in addition to photo absorption using linearly polarized light. At present the beamline is being prepared for installation in SOLARIS. The beamline will be equipped with three end stations: STXM, PEEM and octupole end station.
|Storage Ring Specifications||SOLARIS|
|Max Current||500 [mA]|
|Lattice Architecture||12 - fold symmetry, Double Bend Achromat (DBA) with combined function magnets|
|Number Of Straight Sections In Use||1|
|Average Beam Lifetime||12 [h]|
|Beam Revolution Frequency||3.123 [MHz]|
|Bunch Length Or Duration||60 [mm]|
|Beam Size In Insertion Devices (hor x ver)||X = 183 [um], Y = 13 [um]|
|Beam Size In Bending Magnets (hor x ver)||X = 44 [um], Y = 31 [um]|
The next deadline for submission of beamtime applications is April 1st, 2019
The beamtime is split into two 6-months allocation periods corresponding to spring and autumn calls for proposals.
The spring call (deadline for proposal submission: 1st of April) is for experiments to be performed from September of the same year till February the following year.
The autumn call (deadline for proposal submission: 1st of October) is for experiments to be performed from March till August of the following year.