Swiss-Norwegian Beamline BM31

Beamline BM31 (previously BM01B) is dedicated to combined XRD/XAFS/PDF/Raman measurements on evolving chemical and physical systems

BM31 is specialized in X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS)High Resolution Powder, Diffraction (HRPD) and Total Scattering (PDF)..
The beamline is optimized for fast sequential (quasi-simultaneous) XAS and HRPD measurements on on the same sample spot under in-situ
and in-operando conditions (heating, cooling, varying gas-loadings, in situ catalytic conditions etc).

Main fields of application are in-situ measurements targeted towards: Catalysis, material synthesis, battery research, phase transitions and
sorption/diffusion processes, all monitoring the evolution of samples in real-time.
on the second scale.

Beamline Energy Resolution
2 [eV] @ 10000 [eV]
Beamline Energy Range
4800 - 70000 [eV]
Max Flux On Sample
10 * 1010 [ph/s] @ 10 [eV]
Spot Size On Sample Hor
0.05 - 6 [mm]
Spot Size On Sample Vert
0.02 - 1 [mm]
Divergence Hor
0.01 - 1 [mrad]
Divergence Vert
0.005 - 0.1 [mrad]
Photon Sources

ESRF 0.86T two pole wiggler

Type
Bending Magnet
Available Polarization
Linear horizontal
Monochromators

Exafs Monochromator

Energy Range
4.7 - 70 [keV]
Type
Si-111 Double Crystal Monochromator for Exafs, Si-311 Double crystal monochromator for Xanes
Variable gap and individual crystal rocking curve tuning.

Monochromator for Powder Diffraction & PDF

Energy Range
25 - 50 [keV]
Type
Non-focusing Si-111 flat crystal pair for high resolution powder diffraction @ 0.5A [ 25keV], Si-111 focusing crystals for PDF at 40 and 50keV
Resolving Power
2 * 10-4 [deltaE/E] @ 10000 [eV]
Other Optics

Focusing optics for diffraction @ 40keV and @50keV, Spotsize ~ 100um

Description
Focusing crystal pairs (first flat, second with fixed bending radius)
Endstations or Setup

BM31 measurement station (lead hutch)

Description
End station optimized for combined powder diffraction and Exafs. The setup allows to change between the two techniques on the second scale interlacing the information by Exafs and PDF (short range order) and diffraction (long range order).
The end station equally features a high resolution powder diffractometer
Diffractometer
High resolution 2-circle diffractometer featuring 6 Si-111 analyzer channels separated by Soller slits
Optimized for 0.5A, ~25keV.
Spectrometer
Ion chambers and fluorescence detectors
Endstation Operative
Yes

Sample

Sample Type
Crystal, Amorphous, Liquid
Other Sample Type
Real life samples relevant for industry and research
Mounting Type
Heatable plug flow reactor for borosilicate and Quartz capillaries, typ D=0.7mm

Sample Environment

Description
Heating and cooling devices (LN2 blower, He-Cryostat) , gas loading systems and pressure control systems
Battery cells and galvanostat
Pressure (min)
0.001 [mbar]
Pressure (Max)
100 [bar]
Temperature
5 - 1300 [K]

Sample Holders

Type
Borosilicate and Quartz capillaries
Description
Borosilicate and Quartz capillaries in stainless steel frame with swagelock fittings for save gas supply and RGA exhaust gas analysis
Detectors

13-Element Solid State detector

Type
Germanium detector for high energies ~50keV
Passive or Active (Electronics)
Active

Detection

Detected Particle
Photon

6-Channel High-Res Diffractometer

Type
Two circle high resolution diffractometer
Description
6 Si-111 analyzer channels optimized for 25 keV (~0.5A)
Passive or Active (Electronics)
Active

Detection

Detected Particle
Electron

Dexela 2D Detector

Type
Dexela-Perkin Elmer 2923 CMOS pixel detector
Description
12M pixel CMOS detector
The incoming X-rays are converted with a 250 mm-thick columnar CsI scintillator into optical photons. A fibre optic plate placed in between the
scintillator and the CMOS sensor protects the sensor from the direct X-rays limiting the cross talk between adjacent channels. The optical photons are converted into an electric signal by the CMOS chip
Pixel Size
X = 75 [um], Y = 75 [um]
Array Size
X = 3888 [pixel], Y = 3072 [pixel]
Thickness
250 [um]
Passive or Active (Electronics)
Active
Dynamic Range
16 * 104 [cts]
Signal/NoiseRatio
1 * 10-2
Output Readout Software
Lima (Spec)

Detection

Detected Particle
Photon

Ion-Chambers

Type
Hasy-Lab
Description
30 cm Ion chambers
Loading system with various gases to cater for different energies
Passive or Active (Electronics)
Active

Detection

Detected Particle
Photon

Mass-Spectrometer

Type
Pfeiffer, Quadrupole
Description
Optimized for ions of <= 100amu
Passive or Active (Electronics)
Active

Detection

Detected Particle
Ion

Vortex Fluorescence Detector

Type
Silicon drift detectors for energies up to 15 (20) keV
Passive or Active (Electronics)
Active

Detection

Detected Particle
Photon

X-Ray Eyes

Type
Low and high resolution x-ray eyes using (digital) Basler cameras
a fluorescence screen with imaging optics
Description
Direct beam detection and characterization
Passive or Active (Electronics)
Active

Detection

Detected Particle
Photon
Support Laboratories

ESRF electrochemistry glove box

Description

Glove box to prepare battery cells using electrolytes and reactive materials (Li, Na...)


Sample preparation room

Description

Adjacent room on BM31 for sample preparation, fume hood, Exafs sample press, microscope, basic test equipment. 


contacts
Hermann EMERICH
Wouter van Beek
Techniques
Absorption
  • EXAFS
  • Time-resolved studies
Diffraction
  • Powder diffraction
  • Time-resolved studies
Emission or Reflection
  • X-ray fluorescence (XRF)
Ion Spectroscopy
  • Mass spectrometry
Scattering
  • Elastic scattering
  • Wide angle scattering
Disciplines
Chemistry
  • Catalysis
  • Electrochemistry
  • Green Chemistry
  • Other - Chemistry
  • Physical Chemistry
Earth Sciences & Environment
  • Geology
  • Mineralogy
  • Other - Earth Sciences & Environment
  • Water sciences/Hydrology
Engineering & Technology
  • Nanotechnology & production processes
  • Transport
Humanities
  • Cultural Heritage
Material Sciences
  • Knowledge based multifunctional materials
  • Metallurgy
  • Other - Material Sciences
Physics
  • Atomic & molecular physics
  • Hard condensed matter - electronic properties
  • Hard condensed matter - structures
Address
SNBL site ESRF
71 Avenue des Martyrs
38000 Grenoble
France
control/Data analysis
Control Software Type
  • Spec
Data Output Type
  • Exafs data files (containing additional info as temperature), Mass-spec data, and HR powder diffractogramms + Tiff image files for 2D detector
Data Output Format
  • Ascii and tiff
Softwares For Data Analysis
  • Athena for Exafs
Equipment That Can Be Brought By The User
Dedicated reaction and battery cells, electronic equipment detectors and recording systems, experiment specific gas loading systems, dedicated heaters
Other Equipment Available On Site
Gas loading systems, Residual gas analysis, vacuum pumps, fluorescence detection systems, (battery-)galvanostat, slides and alignment tables.
in partnership with