European Synchrotron Radiation Facility
ID16A - Nano-Imaging Beamline

ID16A-NI is a 185 m long beamline providing nano-focused beams for analytical imaging. The nano-imaging beamline addresses problems in biology, biomedicine, materials science and nano-technology using X-ray fluorescence microscopy and X-ray nano-tomography.

Designed for quantitative three dimensional characterization of the morphology and the elemental composition of specimens at the nanoscale, the ID16A beamline  is optimized for coherent hard X-ray imaging and X-ray fluorescence microscopy. It offers extreme focusing down to 13 nm with a very high photon flux (up to 1012 photons/s at ΔE/E~1%). The beamline can operate at two discrete energies, 17 keV and 33.6 keV, well suited for applications in biomedicine, materials science and nanotechnology. Two coherent imaging techniques, X-ray holographic and ptychographic tomography, provide the distribution of the electron density through phase contrast at length scales ranging from ~130 nm down to ~10 nm, while keeping a relatively large field of view. Complementary, X ray fluorescence microscopy delivers label-free, highly efficient trace element quantification with detection limits down to subppm level. Additionally, correlative imaging is routinely performed by combining phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy.

The endstation operates under vacuum either at room temperature or under cryogenic conditions to preserve the biological samples close to their native hydrated state and slow down radiation damage effects.

 

Beamline Energy Resolution
1.7 * 102 [eV] @ 17000 [eV]
3.4 * 102 [eV] @ 33600 [eV]
Beamline Resolving Power
1 * 10-2 [deltaE/E] @ 17000 [eV]
Beamline Energy Range
17 - 33.6 [eV]
Max Flux On Sample
1 * 1012 [ph/s] @ 17000 [eV]
Spot Size On Sample Hor
0.013 - 600 [um]
Spot Size On Sample Vert
0.013 - 460 [um]
Divergence Hor
0.5 - 7 [mrad]
Divergence Vert
0.5 - 5.5 [mrad]
Photon Sources

U18_3

Type
Undulator
Available Polarization
Linear horizontal
Source Divergence Sigma
X = 10.4 [urad], Y = 1.3 [urad]
Source Size Sigma
X = 412 [um], Y = 4.3 [um]
Source Spectral Brightness
8.2 * 1020 [ph/s/mrad^2/mm^2] @ 17000 [eV]
Deflection Parameter K
0.49 [-]
Energy Range
16.9 - 18.1 [keV]
Total Power
1.05 * 103 [W]
Number Of Periods
152
Period
18.3 [mm]

U22_4

Type
Undulator
Available Polarization
Linear horizontal
Source Divergence Sigma
X = 10.4 [urad], Y = 1.3 [urad]
Source Size Sigma
X = 412 [um], Y = 4.3 [um]
Source Spectral Brightness
2 * 1019 [ph/s/mrad^2/mm^2] @ 33600 [eV]
Deflection Parameter K
0.88 [-]
Energy Range
33 - 40 [keV]
Total Power
2.28 * 103 [W]
Number Of Periods
124
Period
22.4 [mm]
Monochromators

Multilayer Monochromator

Energy Range
11200 - 33600 [eV]
Type
Three stripe fixed incidence multilayer monochromator
Resolving Power
3.9 * 10-2 [deltaE/E] @ 17000 [eV]
Endstations or Setup

ID16A Nano-Imaging

Microscopes
Ultra long working distance on-line microscope (inhouse, NA 0.27)
Diffractometer
-
Spectrometer
-
Base Pressure
1 * 10-7 [mbar]
Detectors Available
Indirect imaging detector IMG2
X-ray fluorescence detector Harry
Pixel detector LAMBDA
X-ray fluorescence detector William
Endstation Operative
Yes

Sample

Sample Type
Crystal, Amorphous, Fiber, Gel
Mounting Type
Free standing or capillary mounted on Huber pin
Si3N4 membrane supported
Required Sample Size
X = 5 [um], Y = 5 [um], Z = 5 [um]

Techniques usage

Emission or Reflection / X-ray fluorescence (XRF)
X-ray fluorescence microscopy: 2D/3D mapping
Imaging / Fluorescence imaging
X-ray fluorescence microscopy: 2D/3D mapping
Imaging / Medical application
X-ray fluorescence microscopy and X-ray phase nanotomography
Imaging / X-ray holography
X-ray inline holography for quantitative phase imaging
Imaging / X-ray microscopy
X-ray fluorescence, X-ray inline holography and X-ray ptychography (nearfield / farfield)
Imaging / X-ray tomography
X-ray fluorescence, X-ray inline holography and X-ray ptychography (nearfield / farfield)
Scattering / Coherent scattering
Forward scattering: X-ray inline holography and X-ray ptychography (nearfield / farfield)

Manipulator or Sample stage

Degrees Of Freedom
6
Translator Stages
5
Cradles
1
Positioning Precision
X = 5 [nm], Y = 5 [nm], Z = 50 [nm]
Range Of Movement
X = 8 [mm], Y = 7 [mm], Z = 85 [mm]

Sample Environment

Pressure (min)
1 * 10-8 [mbar]
Pressure (Max)
1 * 10-7 [mbar]
Temperature
120 - 125 [K]
Humidity
100 [%]

Sample Holders

Type
Huber pin
Description
Brass or Aluminum Huber pins.
Reference: 1002-18MS or 1002-18AL (http://www.xhuber.de/en/product-groups/4-accessories/44-accessories/head-accessories/specimen-carrier/).
Height: 12.5 mm, diameter: 3.15 mm, hole: 0.8 or 1.5 mm. Sample should be centered with +/- 0.5mm.
For cryo, shorter pins should be used (contact beamline staff).
Type
Si3N4 membrane on Si frame
Description
Si3N4 membranes, thickness 50 - 500 nm. Frame sizes: 5 mm x 5 mm, 7.5 mm x 7.5 mm, 10 mm x 10 mm. Frame thickness 200 microns.
In cryo a frame size of 5 mm x 5 mm is mandatory.
Detectors

Indirect imaging detector IMG2

Type
FReLoN CCD based indirect imaging detector
Description
Indirect imaging detector using a thin X-ray scintillator lens coupled to the FReLoN CCD camera.
Pixel Size
X = 1.5 [um], Y = 1.5 [um]
Array Size
X = 4096 [pixel], Y = 4096 [pixel]
Thickness
23 [um]
Passive or Active (Electronics)
Active
Dynamic Range
6.5 * 104 [-]
Signal/NoiseRatio
2 * 104 [-]
Output Readout Software
Tango Lima device server
Atomic Composition
GGG:Eu: Europium doped Gd3Ga5O12
Density
7.1 [g / mm^3]

Detection

Detected Particle
Photon

Pixel detector LAMBDA

Type
Pixel detector LAMBDA
Description
Photon counting detector. Single module GaAs Lambda detector from X-Spectrum GmbH.
http://www.x-spectrum.de/products.htm
Pixel Size
X = 55 [um], Y = 55 [um]
Array Size
X = 256 [pixel], Y = 256 [pixel]
Thickness
500 [um]
Passive or Active (Electronics)
Active
Dynamic Range
16.8 * 106 [-]
Output Readout Software
Tango device server
Atomic Composition
GaAs
Density
5.3 [g / mm^3]

Detection

Detected Particle
Photon

X-ray fluorescence detector Harry

Type
X-ray fluorescence detector Harry
Description
Four element Silicon Drift Diode (SDD) X-ray fluorescence detector.
Assembly from RaySpec Ltd (https://www.rayspec.co.uk).
Thickness
450 [um]
Passive or Active (Electronics)
Active
Output Readout Software
ESRF obsolete software, Xia XManager
Atomic Composition
Si
Density
2.3 [g / mm^3]

Detection

Detected Particle
Electron

X-ray fluorescence detector William

Type
X-ray fluorescence detector William
Description
Six element Silicon Drift Diode (SDD) X-ray fluorescence detector.
Assembly from RaySpec Ltd (https://www.rayspec.co.uk).
Thickness
450 [um]
Passive or Active (Electronics)
Active
Output Readout Software
ESRF obsolete software, Xia XManager
Atomic Composition
Si
Density
2.3 [g / mm^3]

Detection

Detected Particle
Electron
contacts
Peter Cloetens
Julio Cesar da Silva
Alexandra Pacureanu
Yang Yang
Techniques
Emission or Reflection
  • X-ray fluorescence (XRF)
Imaging
  • Fluorescence imaging
  • Medical application
  • X-ray holography
  • X-ray microscopy
  • X-ray tomography
Scattering
  • Coherent scattering
Disciplines
Chemistry
  • Other - Chemistry
Earth Sciences & Environment
  • Other - Earth Sciences & Environment
Energy
  • Other - Energy
Life Sciences & Biotech
  • Medicine
  • Molecular and cellular biology
Material Sciences
  • Other - Material Sciences
control/Data analysis
Control Software Type
  • Tango / SPEC
Data Output Type
  • 2D images, Fluorescence spectra
Data Output Format
  • EDF, HDF5
Softwares For Data Analysis
  • PyMCA, PyHST, TomoJ, Octave and Python scripts
Equipment That Can Be Brought By The User
-
Other Equipment Available On Site
Ex-situ heating and loading
in partnership with