Swiss Light Source

Photoemission and Atomic Resolution Laboratory

PEARL is dedicated to the characterisation of local atomic and electronic structure at the surface of a variety of systems such as molecular networks, organic and inorganic semiconductors, nanostructures, thin films, and complex materials. Soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, ARPES) and diffraction (XPD/PhD) as well as scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) give insight into fundamental phenomena in condensed matter physics that are intimately tied to atomic arrangement or structural transitions.

The laboratory integrates a soft x-ray beamline with an angle-resolved photoelectron spectrometer and a low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) in the same ultra-high vacuum system. On-site surface preparation facilities include ion sputtering, high-temperature annealing and physical vapour deposition. A fast-entry load lock and ports for user-supplied equipment are also available.

Beamline Energy Resolution
1.5 * 10-4 [eV] @ 400 [eV]
Beamline Resolving Power
7000 [deltaE/E] @ 400 [eV]
Beamline Energy Range
60 - 2000 [eV]
Max Flux On Sample
2 * 1011 [ph/s] @ 1000 [eV]
Spot Size On Sample Hor
200 [um]
1 [mm]
Spot Size On Sample Vert
100 [um]
1 [mm]
Matthias Muntwiler
Photoelectron emission
  • Angular Resolved PES
  • Photoelectron diffraction
  • XPS
  • Physical Chemistry
Engineering & Technology
  • Nanotechnology & production processes
Material Sciences
  • Knowledge based multifunctional materials
  • Atomic & molecular physics
  • Hard condensed matter - electronic properties
  • Hard condensed matter - structures
  • Nanophysics & physics of confined matter
  • Surfaces, interfaces and thin films
control/Data analysis
Control Software Type
  • EPICS, PShell
Data Output Type
  • spectra, angle scans, energy scans, angle distribution maps
Data Output Format
  • HDF5
Softwares For Data Analysis
  • Igor Pro
Equipment That Can Be Brought By The User
material evaporators, small growth chamber
Other Equipment Available On Site
low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM)
in partnership with